Uttar Pradesh

Area :2,38,566 square kilometers.

Capital :Lucknow

Population :16,60,52,859

Language :Hindi and Urdu

Minerals :Limestone,Dolomite,Copper,Gypsum,Glass,Sand,Marble,Fireclay,Coal,Phosphorite.

Economy :Major crops that are cultivated include food grains,Sugarcane and oilseeds. Major Industries are Sugar Production,Handloom,Cotton & woolen textiles,leather & footwear,Distilleries & Breweries.

Climate :The climate of the state is tropical monsoon,but variations exist because of difference in altitudes. The Himalayan region is cold. The average temperature varies in the plains from 3-4 Celcius in January to 43-45 Celcius in May and June. The winter season exists from October to February,Summer from March to Mid June and the rainy season from March to September.

History :Many of the great states of ancient India flourished in the region now known as Uttar Pradesh. Gautama Buddha travelled and preached extensively in this region. He gave his first sermon in Sarnath near Varanasi.

Uttar Pradesh was ruled by various dynasties down the centuries,including the Mauryas,the Kushanas and the Guptas. Mathura emerged as the centre of power when the Kushanas under Kanishka made it their capital.

Agra became the centre of power under the Mughals. Akbar the Great built his new capital city,Fatephur Sikri,near Agra. His grandson,Shahjahan,built the famous Taj Mahal in Agra on the banks of the Yamuna.

After the disintegration of the Mughal empire,Awadh emerged as the centre of power in this region. Following the annexation of Awadh,the British created the administrative unit called the United Provinces of Agra and Awadh.