Area :94,163 square kilometers.
Capital :Patna
Population :8,28,78,796
Language :Hindi,Other dialects like Bihari

Climate :The cold weather commences early in November and comes to an end in the middle of March. The climate in the cold weather is pleasant. The hot weather then sets in and lasts till the middle of June. Like other parts of the northern India,Bihar also experiences dust-storms,thunder-storms and dust raising winds during the hot season. The highest temperature is often registered in May which is the hottest month in the state. The rainy season commences after summer and continues till the end of September.

People :The majority of the people in Bihar are Hindus while there are sizeable minorities of Muslims and Christians.

Bihar is mixture of the various castes. Their exist a distinction among the people strongly due to the caste-system. Brahman,Bhumihar,Rajput,Banias and Kayastha are the dominant castes while the lower castes include the Koiri,Kurmi,Kahar and Ahir. Caste rivalries and prejudices are numerous in Bihar.

The tribal population of Bihar include the Asurs,the Mundas considered to be the most ancient of the about 30 tribes in the region and the Santhals,the predominant and the most prosperous of the tribes of Bihar.

Economy :Bihar is known to be the richest mineral output (40%) in the country. The state is the world's chief supplier of mica and the country's largest producer of coal.

Food : The food in Bihar mainly consists of rice as the staple diet along with lentils and fresh vegetables. Along the banks of the states many rivers,fresh fish is a highly prized delicacy. In the tribal belt,wild boar,game birds and sometimes venison is eaten by the locals. While in the cities,food has become more cosmopolitan with a variety of cuisines served in the cafes and restaurants.

Festivals :Apart from the festivals like Diwali,Holi,Dussehra,Navaratri etc. the people of Chattisgarh have their own tribal festivals. There exist a succession of festivals throughout the year which are connected with agricultural operations. Most important festivals among them are Sarhul,Karma and Soharai.

Sarhul is the most popular of all tribal festivals. Sarhul resembles the Vasant-mahotsava of the Hindus and may therefore be described as the spring festival of tribals. Another festival Soharai or Banda parab may be called the harvest festival of tribals. On this occasion domestic animals are worshipped after being washed,anointed with oil and smeared with vermilion. The Karma festival is one which observed by the tribals as well as the non-tribals. On this occasion the tribal youths spend the whole night in singing and dancing. The song sung on this occasion narrate the legends of Karma and Dharma.

History :Buddhism evolved in the region of Bihar. Bihar was inhabited by the people of different races in the history. Great rulers of Bihar in earlier times before the Christian era were Bimbisara,Udayin who founded the city of Pataliputra. Other great dynasties that ruled this region include the famous Mauryan emperors along with the Guptas who under Ashoka had Patiliputra as their capital.

Smaller dynasties like that of the Sungas,Kanva and the Kushanas influenced the regions of Bihar. During the Medieval period Bihar witnessed the Muslim invasion which was followed by the rule of local Rajput clans. The first Muslim conqueror was Mohammad Bin Bakhtiar Khalji. The Tughluqs and then the Mughals followed the Khalijis.

With the downfall of the Mughals,the Nawabs from Bengal exercised their rule. In 1764 after the Battle of Buxar The East India Company came to power over Bihar. In 1911 the two states of Orissa and Bihar were separated from Bengal. In 1936,they became separate provinces.

After the India's independence Bihar became a part of the Indian Union. And on November 15th,2000,a separate state Jharkhand was carved out of Bihar comprising mainly forest tracks of Chhotanagpur plateau and Santhal paragana.