Significance of Indian Marriages

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Ceremony

India is diverse in its cultural and religious structure, and each culture have their peculiar nuance within the large framework of the wedding ceremony. Fire and the vows are the basic of all weddings. The change lies in the method of performance of the ceremony.

From its initial simplicity, the wedding ceremony became complicated and long drawn affair. Today, a marriage is perhaps the most important social occasion for any family, reflecting the regional color that overlays the basic Vedic rites.

The customs during the wedding ceremony in India are varied and reflect the vast diversity of cultures of the land. The cultures have influenced each other with mutual borrowing of practices.

The Preparation

On the wedding morn the bride and groom are prepared for the final plunge, amids joy and festivities by the many members of the family.

Their bodies are anointed with turmeric, sandalwood paste and oils, which cleanse the body, soften the skin, and make it aromatic. They are then bathed to the chanting of Vedic mantras. Today this is done symbolically, if at all, with a token application of turmeric, sandal wood, and oil on the face and arms, this is fallowed by the holy bath.

The bride and groom are now bedecked in all their finery un-rivelled in daily life.


The Mandapam

An altar or mandapa is erected at the marriage venue within which the ceremonial rites are conducted. The wedding ceremony comprises of a series rituals that are presided over and conducted by the ordained priests.


Symbol of Marriage

In the north and east India, the ritual of applying vermilion powder, to the parting of the bride's hair signifies the culmination of the wedding. The groom uses his wedding ring dipped in vermilion powder to trace a line from the start of his brides hairline to the crown of her head.

The ceremony end with the couple seeking the blessing of the elders and are greeted by all present. The bride is than ritually sent off to her new family, in certain customs at this point the brides undergoes a name change as a symbol of shedding her old ties and adorning her new family.

When the bride arrives at her new home, she is ritually welcomed by her mother-in-law and she is ceremonially ushered into the house. She takes care to enter with the auspicious right foot first, gently kicking over a strategically placed measure of paddy as an augury of plenty for her new family.

In modern times post the ritual rig-ma-role the couple through all relationships out the window and head out to the joy of honey-mooning.

The Wedding Ensambelage

She is on this day not just a princess but as goddess, goddess Lakshmi – the harbinger of prosperity and happiness.

Each region of the country has reserved the finest for this day. Radiant in splendor and finery from the head to foot, adorned in ancestral and modern jewelry, the bride is beauty personified.

The groom is the prince of the occasion dressed in the richest traditional attire or the finest in western designs, he is the master of the occasion and figure of power and strength.


The Rituals

The traditional meaning of the varmala (mutual garlanding by the couple) is a proposal made by the bride and thence the acceptance of the proposal. This custom has become a very important part of the wedding ceremony now but is not mentioned in the Vedas. It probably originates from the Svayamvara practice prevalent in early centuries of the Christian era in India. A classic case in history is the famous story of Prithvi Raj Chauhan and Sanyukta.

After this, the bride and groom sit in the mandapa next to each other before a sacred pyre or havan kunda. The ritual of Kanyadana now takes place. The bride is given to the groom by her father, or by her grandfather or brother in the absence of her father. The bride's father first symbolically gives her to God, invoked by the priest with the mantras. The bride's guardian takes her hands and places them in the groom's, transferring his responsibility for her to the groom. The groom assures her father that he will not be false to her in dharma, artha, or kama. After this, the groom ties a tali (a.k.a. Mangalasutra) around the bride's neck.

The marriage ceremony then enters its most important phase, the saptapadi (seven steps), in which the couple take seven steps together, facing the north. With the fire (Agni) as the witness, they exchange the wedding vows. Legally, the marriage is now final and binding. The bride is then sprinkled with holy water, believed to purify her from any previous sins and cleanse her, in preparation for her new life ahead.

The Legends

Legend goes that during the wedding of Lord Shiva and Parvati, Shiva asked Parvati to come to his left after the agni pradakshina, symbolizing that they had been married. Parvati said she would not accept this as a marriage until Shiva granted her seven wishes. Shiva did so, and then made seven stipulations, which Parvati accepted, and the seven steps are supposed to have derived from this.

The Gandharva Vivaha (the marriage of the celestials) involves simple exchange of garlands upon with the marriage is confirmed. We find references of this type of wedding in Hindu mythologies and epics. This is equivalent of eloping in today's world, and couples whose union is not blessed by families seek refuge in this custom.

It is said that the thought of another woman as a wife never occurred to Ramachandra (see Lord Ramachandra of Ayodhya) who is considered the perfect man, and widely worshiped in India, and the devotees (most notably Mahatma Gandhi) try to emulate him. The strong tradition of monogamy in India perhaps has roots in the Hindu epic of Ramayana.

Indian Ornaments

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Nose pin: More common than a nose ring, both are symbols of purity & marriage, though today many unmarried Indian girls wear this adornment.

Necklace: These are very popular fashion accessories across India amongst girls and women of all ages. Necklaces are made of a variety of materials, ranging from glass beads to gold and diamonds. One special necklace is the mangalasutra, worn only by married Indian women. It is the Indian equivalent of the western wedding ring. Traditionally a woman wore it during her wedding ceremony and took it off only if her husband died.

Bangles: Worn on the wrist, bangles are believed to be protective bands and women always wore them as symbolic guards over their husbands. As with other ornaments, bangles today are worn by women of all ages all over India and are made of silver, gold, wood, glass, and plastic, among other materials.

Ear rings: Rings, studs and other ornaments worn in the ears are popular all over the country. In fact, a girl's ears are usually pierced before her first birthday.Other important ornaments are finger rings, toe rings and anklets. Rings for the fingers are again, of various materials and designs and worn by unmarried and married women. Since the ring has become a common adornment, it is no longer considered a symbol in Indian marriages.

However, toe rings and anklets are still worn mostly by married women. Ornaments for the feet are usually made of silver because gold, being a 'pure' metal, was not supposed to be worn on the feet. This privilege was given only to women of royal Indian families.

In addition to these ornaments is the 'mangatika' or 'tikli'. This ornament, worn at the top of the forehead in the parting of the hair, is usually a small pendant on the end of a chain that is clasped to the hair. Although traditionally this ornament was also worn as a symbol of marriage, today it is not so commonly worn even by married women.

Kajal or Eyeliner : From the time a child is six days old, its mother applies kajal to its eyes and also a small black dot on the forehead to mar the child's beauty. This 'imperfection' is said to protect from evil.

Sindoor : dot on forehead of woman indicating married status of Indian Women, power, protection for her husband. It is applied by the husband as part of wedding ceremony.

Har Gobind Khorana

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Born - 9 January 1922
Achievements - Har Gobind Khorana is an American molecular biologist, who was born to an Indian Punjabi couple. For his work on the interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in the year 1968.

Har Gobind Khorana is an American molecular biologist born on 9 January 1922 to an Indian Punjabi couple. For his work on the interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in the year 1968. This award was, however, also shared by Robert W. Holley and Marshall Warren Nirenberg. The very same year, he received another award 'Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize' along with Nirenberg that was presented to them by the Columbia University.

Har Gobind KhoranaRead this biography to learn more about Har Gobind Khorana, who became a citizen of the United States of America in the year 1966. In present times, he's residing at Cambridge in Massachusetts, United States as a part of the MIT Chemistry faculty. Har Gobind Khorana was also the first to produce oligonucleotides, which is chains of nucleotides. He was also the first person to segregate DNA ligase, an enzyme that connects sections of DNA together.

These custom-designed portions of artificial genes are extensively used in biology labs for sequencing, cloning and engineering new plants and animals. This invention by Dr. Khorana has become automated and commercialized so that anyone now can order a synthetic gene from any of a number of companies. Thus, this is the history of the life of Dr Har Gobind Khorana as a biologist.

Dr. Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar

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Born - 21 February 1894
Died - 1 January 1955
Achievements - A noted scientist of India, Dr Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar was appointed the first director-general of the prestigious Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. He also hold the credit of building 12 national laboratories like Central Food Processing Technological Institute at Mysore, National Chemical Laboratory at Pune and so on.

Dr Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar was a distinguished Indian scientist. He was born on 21 February 1894 at Shahpur, which is located in Pakistan in present times. His father passed away sometime after the birth of Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar. As such, he spent his childhood days with his maternal grandfather who was an engineer and it was here that he developed an interest in science and engineering. Read on this biography to know more about the life and professional history of Dr Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar.

As a child, Bhatnagar loved to construct mechanical toys. In the home of his maternal family, he also developed an interest in writing poetry and his one act play in Urdu 'Karamati' won the first prize in a competition. After completing his master's in India, Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar headed to England for a research fellowship. Here he got his D. Sc degree from the London University in the year 1921. When he came back to his native country, Bhatnagar was presented with a proposal of professorship at the renowned Benaras Hindu University.

Dr. Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Dr Bhatnagar was knighted by the British Government in the year 1941 as an award for his research in science, whereas, on 18 March 1943 he was selected as fellow of the Royal Society. Though his area of interest included emulsions, colloids, and industrial chemistry, but his primary contributions were in the spheres of magneto-chemistry. He also made a melodious kulgeet i.e. University song, which is still sung with great pride before any function in his university.

Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru himself was an advocate of scientific development. After India gained freedom from British rule in 1947, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research was established under the chairmanship of Dr. Bhatnagar, who was appointed its first director-general. In the coming years, he set up 12 national laboratories like Central Food Processing Technological Institute at Mysore, National Chemical Laboratory at Pune, the National Metallurgical Laboratory at Jamshedpur and many others.

Srinivasa Ramanujan

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Born: December 22, 1887
Died: April 26, 1920
Achievements: Ramanujan independently discovered results of Gauss, Kummer and others on hypergeometric series. Ramanujan's own work on partial sums and products of hypergeometric series have led to major development in the topic. His most famous work was on the number p(n) of partitions of an integer n into summands.

Srinivasa Ramanujan was a mathematician par excellence. He is widely believed to be the greatest mathematician of the 20th Century. Srinivasa Ramanujan made significant contribution to the analytical theory of numbers and worked on elliptic functions, continued fractions, and infinite series.

Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan was born on December 22, 1887 in Erode, Tamil Nadu. His father worked in Kumbakonam as a clerk in a cloth merchant's shop. At the of five Ramanujan went to primary school in Kumbakonam. In 1898 at age 10, he entered the Town High School in Kumbakonam. At the age of eleven he was lent books on advanced trigonometry written by S. L. Loney by two lodgers at his home who studied at the Government college. He mastered them by the age of thirteen. Ramanujan was a bright student, winning academic prizes in high school.

At age of 16 his life took a decisive turn after he obtained a book titled" A Synopsis of Elementary Results in Pure and Applied Mathematics". The book was simply a compilation of thousands of mathematical results, most set down with little or no indication of proof. The book generated Ramanujan's interest in mathematics and he worked through the book's results and beyond. By 1904 Ramanujan had begun to undertake deep research. He investigated the series (1/n) and calculated Euler's constant to 15 decimal places. He began to study the Bernoulli numbers, although this was entirely his own independent discovery. He was given a scholarship to the Government College in Kumbakonam which he entered in 1904. But he neglected his other subjects at the cost of mathematics and failed in college examination. He dropped out of the college.

Ramanujan lived off the charity of friends, filling notebooks with mathematical discoveries and seeking patrons to support his work. In 1906 Ramanujan went to Madras where he entered Pachaiyappa's College. His aim was to pass the First Arts examination which would allow him to be admitted to the University of Madras. Continuing his mathematical work Ramanujan studied continued fractions and divergent series in 1908. At this stage he became seriously ill again and underwent an operation in April 1909 after which he took him some considerable time to recover.

On 14 July 1909 Ramanujan marry a ten year old girl S Janaki Ammal. During this period Ramanujan had his first paper published, a 17-page work on Bernoulli numbers that appeared in 1911 in the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society. In 191,1 Ramanujan approached the founder of the Indian Mathematical Society for advice on a job. He got the job of clerk at the Madras Port Trust with the help of Indian mathematician Ramachandra Rao.

The professor of civil engineering at the Madras Engineering College C L T Griffith was interested in Ramanujan's abilities and, having been educated at University College London, knew the professor of mathematics there, namely M J M Hill. He wrote to Hill on 12 November 1912 sending some of Ramanujan's work and a copy of his 1911 paper on Bernoulli numbers. Hill replied in a fairly encouraging way but showed that he had failed to understand Ramanujan's results on divergent series. In January 1913 Ramanujan wrote to G H Hardy having seen a copy of his 1910 book Orders of infinity. Hardy, together with Littlewood, studied the long list of unproved theorems which Ramanujan enclosed with his letter. Hardy wrote back to Ramanujan and evinced interest in his work.

University of Madras gave Ramanujan a scholarship in May 1913 for two years and, in 1914, Hardy brought Ramanujan to Trinity College, Cambridge, to begin an extraordinary collaboration. Right from the start Ramanujan's collaboration with Hardy led to important results. In a joint paper with Hardy, Ramanujan gave an asymptotic formula for p(n). It had the remarkable property that it appeared to give the correct value of p(n), and this was later proved by Rademacher.

Ramanujan had problems settling in London. He was an orthodox Brahmin and right from the beginning he had problems with his diet. The outbreak of World War I made obtaining special items of food harder and it was not long before Ramanujan had health problems.

On 16 March 1916 Ramanujan graduated from Cambridge with a Bachelor of Science by Research. He had been allowed to enrol in June 1914 despite not having the proper qualifications. Ramanujan's dissertation was on Highly composite numbers and consisted of seven of his papers published in England.

Ramanujan fell seriously ill in 1917 and his doctors feared that he would die. He did improve a little by September but spent most of his time in various nursing homes. On February 18, 1918 Ramanujan was elected a fellow of the Cambridge Philosophical Society and later he was also elected as a fellow of the Royal Society of London. By the end of November 1918 Ramanujan's health had greatly improved.

Ramanujan sailed to India on 27 February 1919 arriving on 13 March. However his health was very poor and, despite medical treatment, he died on April 6, 1920.

Birbal Sahni

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Born - 14 November 1891
Died - 10 April 1949
Achievements - Birbal Sahni was a renowned paleobotanist and geologist of India. He is Sahni is credited for setting up the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany at Lucknow in the state of Uttar Pradesh. In the year 1929, he received the degree of Sc. D. from the University of Cambridge. He was also appointed the Fellow of the Royal Society of London (FRS) in the year 1936, which is the biggest British scientific honor.

Birbal Sahni was a renowned paleobotanist of India, who studied the fossils of the Indian subcontinent. Also a great geologist, Sahni is credited for establishing the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany at Lucknow in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Born on 14 November in the year 1891 at Behra in the Saharanpur District of West Punjab, Birbal was the third son of Ishwar Devi and Prof. Ruchi Ram Sahni. Some famous personalities who were regular guests of his parents were Motilal Nehru, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Sarojini Naidu and others.

Birbal SahniRead on further about the biography of Birbal Sahni, who received his education at the Government College University of Lahore and later from Punjab University. He attended the Emmanuel College at Cambridge in the year 1914. And after this, he pursued further studies under Professor A.C. Seward and was given the D.Sc. degree from London University in the year 1919. Birbal Sahni then came back to his native country India to work as the professor of Botany at the highly esteemed Banaras Hindu University at the holy city of Varanasi.

Sahni also taught at the Punjab University for about a year. Birbal Sahni's academic background was so strong that he was elected the head of the botany department in Lucknow University in the year 1921. There were numerous such landmarks in the life history of Birbal Sahni, whose fabulous research work was honored by the University of Cambridge that decided to present him with the degree of Sc. D. in the year 1929. In the coming time, Sahni not only continued his own study, but also appointed and guided a number of bright students under him.

He holds the credit of establishing the Paleobotanical Society that went on to set up the Institute of Palaeobotany on 10 September 1946. Professor Sahni was respected by all academicians and scholars of his time both in India and abroad. He was appointed the Fellow of the Royal Society of London (FRS) in the year 1936, which is the biggest British scientific honor. And for the first time since its inception, this award was given out to an Indian botanist.

APJ Abdul Kalam

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Born - 15 October 1931
Achievements - This eminent scientist and engineer has also served as the 11th President of India from the period 2002 to 2007. APJ Abdul Kalam is a man of vision, who is always full of ideas aimed at the development of the country. He firmly believes that India needs to play a more assertive role in international relations.

Apart from being a notable scientist and engineer, Dr APJ Abdul Kalam served as the 11th President of India from the period 2002 to 2007. He is a man of vision, who is always full of ideas aimed at the development of the country and is also often also referred to as the Missile Man of India. People loved and respected Dr APJ Abdul Kalam so much during his tenure as President that was popularly called the People's President. Read more about the biography of Dr APJ Abdul Kalam here.

APJ Abdul Kalam APJ Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 at the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu and received honorary doctorates from about 30 universities globally. In the year 1981, the Government of India presented him the nation's highest civilian honor, the Padma Bhushan and then again, the Padma Vibhushan in 1990 and the Bharat Ratna in 1997. Before Kalam, there have been only two presidents - Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Zakir Hussain - to have received the Bharat Ratna before bring appointed to the highest office in India.

Read on about the life history of Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, who's also the first scientist and bachelor to occupy the seat of the Rashtrapati Bhavan. His perspectives on important topics have been enunciated by him in the book 'India 2020'. It highlights the action plans that will help develop the country into a knowledge superpower by the time 2020. One thing for which he received ample kudos is his unambiguous statement that India needs to play a more assertive role in international relations.

And Dr APJ Abdul Kalam regards his work on India's nuclear weapons program as a way to assert India's place as a future superpower. Even during his tenure as President, APJ Kalam took avid interest in the spheres of India's science and technology. He has even put forward a project plan for establishing bio-implants. He is also an ardent advocate of open source software over proprietary solutions to churn out more profits in the field of information technology in India.

Anil Kakodkar

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Born - 11 November 1943
Achievements - Dr Anil Kakodkar is a famous Indian nuclear scientist. Currently, he's the chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of India (AECI) and the Secretary to the Government of India, Department of Atomic Energy. He was also the director of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Trombay.

Dr Anil Kakodkar is a very distinguished nuclear scientist of India. He is presently the chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of India (AECI) as well as the Secretary to the Government of India, Department of Atomic Energy. He was the director of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Trombay from the year 1996-2000 before being granted the opportunity of leading India's nuclear programme. Read on more about the biography of Anil Kakodkar.

Anil KakodkarAnil Kakodkar was born on 11 November 1943 in the Barawani village located in the present day Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. He's the son of Mrs Kamala Kakodkar & Mr. P. Kakodkar, both of whom happen to be Gandhian freedom fighters. His early education happened here and at Khargoan. After this, Anil Kakodkar went away to Bombay to pursue his post-matriculation studies. He graduated from the Ruparel College there.

Kakodkar then joined VJTI in Bombay University in 1963 to obtain a degree in Mechanical Engineering. In the year 1964, Anil Kakodkar joined the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). He also notched a masters degree in experimental stress analysis from the University of Nottingham in the year 1969. The life history of Anil Kakodkar's career as nuclear scientist further saw him join the Reactor Engineering Division of the BARC.

Anil Kakodkar also has the credit of being a member of the core team of architects of India's Peaceful Nuclear Tests that were conducted during the years 1974 and 1998. He also led the indigenous development of the country's Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor Technology. Anil Kakodkar's efforts in the rehabilitation of the two reactors at Kalpakkam and the first unit at Rawatbhatta is noteworthy as it were about to close down.

In the year 1996, Anil Kakodkar became the youngest Director of the BARC after Homi Bhabha himself. From the year 2000 onwards, he has been leading the Atomic Energy Commission of India and playing secretary to the Department of Atomic Energy. Dr Anil Kakodkar has been playing a crucial part in demanding sovereignty for India's nuclear tests. Infact, he is known for being a strong advocate of India's self-reliance by employing Thorium as a fuel for nuclear energy.

Vikram Sarabhai Biography

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Born: August 12, 1919
Died: December 31,1971
Achievements: Considered the Father of the Indian space program; instrumental in establishing the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in Ahmedabad in November 1947; was Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission. He along with other Ahmedabad-based industrialists played a major role in the creation of the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.

Vikram Sarabhai was one of the greatest scientists of India. He is considered as the Father of the Indian space program. Apart from being a scientist, he was a rare combination of an innovator, industrialist and visionary.

Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai was born on August 12, 1919 at Ahmedabad in an affluent family of progressive industrialists. He was one of eight children of Ambalal and Sarla Devi. He had his early education in a private school, “Retreat” run by his parents on Montessori lines. Some of the great men of India such as Gurudev Rabindranath, J. Krishna Murthi, Motilal Nehru, V. S. Shrinivasa Shastri, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, Maulana Azad, C. F. Andrews, C. V. Raman et al. used to stay with the Sarabhai family when they visited Ahmedabad. Mahatma Gandhi also once stayed at their house while recovering from an illness. Visits by such great men greatly influenced Vikram Sarabhai.

After his matriculation, Vikram Sarabhai proceeded to Cambridge for his college education and took the tripods degree from St. John's college in 1940. When World War II began, he returned home and joined as a research scholar under Sir C. V. Raman at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore His interest in solar physics and cosmic ray led him to set up many observation stations around the country. He built the necessary equipment with which he took measurements at Bangalore, Poona and the Himalayas. He returned to Cambridge in 1945 and completed his Ph.D in 1947.

Vikram Sarabhai was instrumental in establishing the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in Ahmedabad in November 1947. The laboratory was established in a few rooms in M.G. Science Institute of the Ahmedabad Education Society, which was founded by his parents. Subsequently, it got support from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the Department of Atomic Energy.

Vikram Sarabhai did research on the time variations of cosmic rays and concluded that meteorological effects could not entirely affect the observed daily variations of cosmic rays; further, the residual variations were wide and global and these were related to variations in solar activity. Vikram Sarabhai visualized a new field of research opening up in solar and interplanetary Physics.

The year 1957-1958 was designated as International Geo-physical year (IGY). The Indian program for the IGY had been one of the most significant ventures of Sarabhai. It exposed him to the new vistas of space science with the launching in 1957 of Sputnik-I. Subsequently, the Indian National Committee for Space Research was created, of which Vikram Sarabhai became Chairman.

With active support from Homi Bhabha, Vikram Sarabhai, set up the first Rocket Launching station (TERLS) in the country at Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram on the Arabian Coast, as Thumba is very close to the Equator. The first rocket with sodium vapour payload was launched on November 21, 1963. In 1965, the UN General Assembly gave recognition to TERLS as an international facility.

After the sudden death of Homi Bhabha in an air crash, Vikram Sarabhai was appointed Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission in May 1966. He wanted the practical application of science to reach the common man. He decided to acquire competence in advance technology for the solution of country’s problems based on technical and economic evaluation of its real resources. He initiated India’s space programme, which today is renowned all over the world.

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai was awarded with Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Medal in 1962 and Padma Bhushan in 1966. Vikram Sarabhai passed away in his sleep on December 31,1971.

Dileepa

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An illustrions king of the solar dynasty; an ancestor of Sri Rama. Though renowned for his valor, Dileepa tended the celestial cow Nandini like a cowherd. In an ultimate act of piety, he offered himself as food to a lion to protect Nandini, and thus proved his worthiness in a test posed by Nandini herself. After covering himself with glory, he gave up the kingdom and spent his last years in meditation in forest,setting a noble ideal.

Please leave the cow. You can eat my own body, and feel satisfied. Being a friend, do accede to my request." An Emperor known for his valor thus begged of a lion. How strange! Being so valiant, why did he not kill the lion? Further more, instead of living in grandeur and happiness like a king of kings, why give his body to the lion for the sake of a cow? Isn't it strange? Yet, how good and dignified does it show the Emperor to be! His is a very interesting story.

Kharvela

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A great king of Kalinga who ruled twenty- one centuries ago. Coming to the throne when the state was in distress, he brought confidence and self-respect to the people. And he refused to join hands with a foreign army against an Indian prince.

This incident took place, long, long ago, about 2300 years ago. Kalinga and Magadha were two powerful states. These neighboring states were at constant war with each other for nearly a century. Kalinga had suffered defeat and was waiting for the right time to teach Magadha a lesson. War had broken out again between them. Just at that time the King of Kalinga learnt disturbing news, a Greek King had come from beyond India and was marching towards Magadha. The Magadha had defeated and humiliated the Kalingas a hundred years before. Suppose the King of Kalinga had welcomed this attack; suppose he had thought - 'Let this new enemy defeat the King of Magadha, my desire for revenge will be satisfied' – that would have been natural. He could have thought: 'These people of Magadha insulted us a hundred years ago; let them suffer now.' But the King of Kalinga thought differently. 'This enemy who is now attacking Magadha is an outsider; he comes here to loot. He is as much my enemy as of Magadha.' Those who had been at war for over a century joined hands in this hour of great danger. The outsider who had come to plunder was driven away. If only the later kings of India had shown the foresight and wisdom which the King of Kalinga showed twenty-three centuries ago; if only they had sunk their differences when the Muslims and the British attacked our country ; if only they had fought unitedly shoulder to shoulder, considering themselves as sons of the same soil ; India need not have suffered in slavery. The king who had acted with such farsightedness and wisdom even in those early days was King Kharavela.

Ashoka

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The Wheel which adorns the flag of free India has kept his memory green. Lord of a vast empire, after a great victory sick of violence and took an oath never to fight again.He was an Ideal ruler.

"All men are my children. I am like a father to them. As every father desires the good and the happiness of his children, I wish that all men should be happy always." These are the words of an emperor who lived two thousand and three hundred years ago. We see in history how even mere chieftains grew arrogant and used their powers selfishly and unjustly. But the emperor who said the above words ruled over the greater part of India. He had the power of life and death over millions of his subjects. Is it surprising that free India remembers him with admiration? This emperor was Ashoka (also called ‘Devanampriya Priyadarshi’). The wheel in the abacus of the pillar which he erected as a memorial at Saranath now adorns the national flag of free India. --- Ashoka

Harischandra

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With his vow to remain truthful at all times, Harischandra successfully faced the rigorous challenge posed by Vishwamitra. Though a king. He sacrificed everything he had at the attar of truth, including his Kingdom, and even his life and son. He took so lowly a job as that of the guard at burning ground; even in the case of his own son he demanded the prescribed fee for cremation, which his wife had no means of paying. On an order from the king, Harischandra even prepared to behead his own wife. Harischandra's character is indelibly etched in the mind of Hindus.

The story of Harischandra is of perennial interest. The story will last for as long a time as the value of truth lasts. It illumines our life. It was this story which helped Yudhishtira to get over his adversities. Again, it was this story which showed the path of truth to Gandhiji. This story occurs in the Vedas and also in the Puranas, in poetry and in drama. It took its origin in the Vedas, flowed through the Puranas, ran into cascades of poetry, and has continued to enrich the life of our people.

Hakka-Bukka

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Hakka was the first ruler of the famous kingdom of Vijayanagar, and Bukka, his brother, the second ruler. They opposed the mighty Sultan of Delhi and brought unity and freedom to south India. They were great not only as warriors but also as rulers.

Hakka and Bukka were the first kings of the Vijayanagar Empire. To them goes the credit of protecting our religion, culture, literature and fine arts when they were in danger. They also established the rule of Dharma. Their real names were Harihara and Bukkaraya. But the people affectionately called them Hakka (orHukka) and Bukka, and those names stuck to them. Those names are found even in one of the inscriptions. Three dynasties ruled over the Vijayanagar Empire. The first of them was theSangama Dynasty. Harihara and Bukkaraya were the first two kings of that dynasty. Harihara founded the Vijayanagar kingdom and Bukkaraya stretched it into an empire. Hakka and Bukka are remembered for their heroic achievement. First of all we should know the conditions in our country at that time. Only then we can understand how difficult and how great was the achievement of Hakka and Bukka.

Choosing Hair Color

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If you want to change your appearance the easiest way to do it, is to do something to your hair. Adding color to your hair is one of the quickest and most dramatic ways of changing the way you look. But choosing the right hair color can be a difficult task. Given below is information about different types of hair color and information about what color would suit you best.

Types of Hair Color or Dyes:

* Permanent Tints: Is mixed with hydrogen peroxide to lift hair color. The peroxide opens the hair cuticle to allow the color to reach the cortex and form the color. The greater the concentrations of peroxide the quicker and lighter the result.
* Semi-Permanent Colors: They do not lift color. They only vary the tone of your natural hair color or can be made darker. It has very little peroxide, which opens the cuticles slightly. Hence the color will last up to about 20 washes and will fade slowly as you shampoo your hair.
* Semi-Permanent Vegetable Colors: It has only vegetable extracts and natural ingredients. Therefore no color is removed from your hair. The color is superficially on the surface of the hair and will be washed away after about 8 shampoos.

Hair Color Tip:

* The hair color you choose should suit your skin color. Light complexioned people do not look good with very dark hair as it draws color out of their skin. Dark complexioned people look best with four or five tones of blonde; chestnut or honey tones also will look great.
* When you are coloring your hair for the first time don't do it by yourself. Get it done by a professional.
* Blonde hair color is easy to get on dark brown hair. But your hair has been permanently colored then this process can become very tedious.
* Red hair color is the sexiest shade and attracts most attention. Most hair is suitable for red hair color. If you are a blonde you will have to go two or three shades darker than your natural color to achieve a rich red hair color and this color is not easy to reverse.
* Brown hair color suits almost everybody. By varying a shade of brown with highlights you can achieve a huge range of colors.
* Black hair color is easy to apply and is easy to apply on all types of hair. But this color looks good only on people with dark or olive skin color.

It is best to consult a beautician and a professional before you color your hair for the first time. As they will give the best advise as to what color is best for your skin tone and for your hair texture.

Healthy Hair Tips

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Your hair reflects your general health and is vulnerable to stresses and strains of your everyday life. If you are not healthy and not taking care of yourself and not following a healthy diet then your hair will lose its shine and bounce and become dull. You should have a healthy diet and exercise enough to ensure that your hair follicles get enough blood.

Food For Healthy Hair
Eating a healthy, well-balanced diet is important for healthy hair. There are certain specific foods that are important for healthy hair. Your diet should consist of the following foods if you want your hair to look healthy and shine.

* Protein: Is found meat, fish, poultry, milk, eggs, cheese, yogurt, sunflower seeds etc.
* Vitamin A: Is found in butter, eggs, milk, carrots, tomatoes, oily fish, dark green leafy vegetables, apricots etc.
* Vitamin B: Found in milk, eggs, wholegrain cereals, bread, wheat germs, nuts, soya beans, poultry, fish, meat etc.
* Vitamin D: Sunlight, fish liver oils, oily fish, milk and eggs etc.
* Vitamin C: Found in blackcurrant, green peppers, citrus fruits, bananas, avocados, artichokes, leafy green vegetables etc.
* Vitamin E: Found wheat germ, peanuts, vegetable oils, pulses, green leafy vegetables etc.
* Iron: Found spinach, cockles, liver, kidneys, pulses, lentils, beans, peas, dried fruit etc.
* Calcium: Found cheese, nuts, eggs, milk, yogurt, sardines, root vegetables etc.
* Iodine: Found in seafood, dried kelp, iodized salt etc.
* Sulphur: Found eggs, meat, cheese, diary products etc.
* Drink coconut water at least twice a week, it is good for your skin, digestive system and does wonders to your hair.

How To Make Your Hair Shiny

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Your hair is an important part of your appearance. If your hair does not look good, your entire appearance can be ruined. All of us would like to have beautiful, silky, shiny hair. But like a number of other beauty secrets many of us do not know how to make our hair shiny. Different hair textures need different ingredients to make it shiny. Healthy, shiny hair enhances the beauty of a person.

* Fine Hair : for fine hair look for a shampoo with wheat proteins and polymers. These ingredients coat the hair shaft making it look thicker. Use spray volumizers. These are light enough and will deposit a light mist of shine in the form of droplets without wilting your hair.
* Normal Hair : for normal hair use a shampoo that has silk amino acids, this softens and repairs hair structure. Lecithin restores hair texture. To add shine you can use gels and creams. First apply the product on your palm, rub your hands together and pat gently on to your hair.
* Thick and Coarse Hair: Use pomades they will not only make your hair shiny but will moisturize your hair as well.

Tips For Shiny Hair

* Use heat-activated shampoo
* Deep condition at least weekly
* Don’t use a lot of styling products as they can dull the hair by coating it.
* Use Strawberry hair mask: mash eight strawberries with one-tablespoon mayonnaise. Massage this into washed but damp hair. Cover it with a shower cap and then a warm towel. Wash out with a shampoo and then condition. This mask will give your hair a rich gloss.
* Increase the shine in your hair by giving your hair a cool blast of air to seal the cuticle after it is completely dry. If the cuticles are ragged then your hair will not shine.
* For blonde hair use a few tablespoons of lemon juice to your rinse water. This will make your hair shiny.
* For brown and red hair add a few tablespoons of apple cider vinegar to your rinse water.
* For shiny hair you can also mix one teaspoon of honey into 4 cups of warm water. After shampooing, pour the mixture through your hair, but do not rinse. Dry as normal.

Hair Split Ends

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Split ends in the hair are the most common hair problem that every woman faces. Trichoptlosis or split ends occur when the protective cuticle is stripped away from the ends of the hair. Split ends are more common when the hair is dry or brittle. Excessive dying or vigorous brushing can cause split ends. Once the hair cuticle is removed in this fashion it is impossible to replace it. The hair will split into two or three strands, for a length of two to three centimeters in length. The best way to get rid of spilt ends is to cut them off. There is no other effective cure for split ends.

During the seventies women used to burn off the split ends. You need not do this. All you need to do is to cut them off using a pair of scissors. You do not have to visit a saloon to cut them off; you can do it at home itself. To get rid of split ends, take a small section of your hair and carefully twist it gently in a downward motion. When you do this, the split ends will automatically stick out. Carefully snip into the twist with sharp scissors. Carefully remove the split ends; this will give your hair a natural layered effect. Try to cut about the same amount of hair. Cutting your hair is the best way of getting rid of split ends. It is the simplest and least expensive method to remove split ends.

Prevent Hair Loss

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Loss of hair makes everyone anxious and no one wants to be bald. So everyone is always trying various methods to prevent hair loss. Here are a few solutions to hair loss problems. These tips will help in the regeneration of hair follicles but will not cure the underlying cause of hair loss.

* Make a drink by blending bananas, honey, yogurt and low fat milk. This drink is rich in biotin and will help your hair to have strong roots.
* Ensure your diet is rich in Vitamin B6, zinc and saw palmetto. Use supplements if you cannot get enough from natural food sources.
* Bend your head while you are shampooing and massage your scalp. This will increase blood circulation to the scalp.
* Get rid of stress and this is most dangerous for your lovely hair.
* Get sufficient sleep. Like a healthy body, healthy hair too needs a good night's sleep.

Oily Hair Remedy

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Oily hair hangs limp against your head and does not have any life or bounce. Everyone likes to have shiny, bouncy hair and this may seem a difficult task with oily hair. There are remedies for oily hair and here are a few tips on how to manage oily hair.

* Do not wash your hair everyday. If your hair is clean your glands will secrete more oil. Use a cleaning shampoo to wash your hair and to scrub off the oil build up. Use a mild shampoo and scrub lightly.
* While applying conditioner, do not apply to the roots only apply in the middle or to the ends.
* Reduce the oil intake in your diet. Avoid oily food. Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables. Avoid drugs, alcohol and oils.
* You should consider changing your shampoo. Ask your stylist what you should use. Avoid using the two-in-one shampoos with conditioner.
* If you have to fix oily hair at short notice then just rub in some talcum powder to the hair roots. Make sure that you wash it off later on.

These are a few tips that should help your hair from looking oily and preventing oil build up. It is not easy and you will have to work at it.

Healthy Hair

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The most effective way to get healthy hair is to have a healthy diet. Lustrous, healthy hair is a result of a healthy body and a result of eating healthy food. Beautiful, healthy hair is a result of a healthy diet. There are certain foods that make your hair healthy and strong. Incorporate these foods in your day-to-day diet and you will notice the difference in your hair within a few weeks.

* Water: One-fourth of the weight, of a strand of hair, is made up of water. Water makes your hair supple and soft therefore you should have enough water. Do not wait till you are thirsty keep drinking water. If you thirsty it means that you have lost water and your body is asking you to replenish the loss. Water keeps your hair silky and shiny as well.
* Protein: A diet for healthy hair should be rich in protein as hair consists of primarily protein. Proteins will give your hair more strength and will prevent it from breaking and splitting. Eat protein rich foods like fish, meat, milk, cheese and cereals.
* Minerals: A variety of minerals are important for healthy hair. Iron carries oxygen to the hair. Insufficient iron will starve the hair follicles of oxygen. Include red meat and dark green vegetable in your diet. Zinc prevents hair loss. Meat and seafood have a high content of zinc. To improve the natural color of your hair, incorporate copper in your diet. Fresh vegetables, nuts, seeds, meat and liver are high in copper.
* Vitamins: You must ensure that you diet has all the necessary vitamins that help in the growth of healthy hair. Vitamin A makes your scalp healthy and is good for your skin as well. It is found in vegetables especially carrots. Vitamin B and C for hair growth and hair color. Include these vitamins in your diet will ensure that your hair is healthy and does not split. Eat fruits, vegetables, cereals, eggs, milk and bread.
* Exercise: Along with a healthy hair diet it is important that you exercise properly as it will ensure that there is proper blood flow to your scalp and will help in the growth of hair.

Dandruff

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Dandruff is a common hair problem that bothers many of us. Many people also complain that with dandruff there is an increase in hair loss as well. But there is no established relationship between dandruff and loss of hair. But if you have too much dandruff then you must take it is as a warning about the health of your hair. Dandruff is made up of small pieces of dead skin that peel from the scalp as a result of the effects of metabolism. During its early stages dandruff is not visible to the naked eye. It becomes visible as a result of the growth of bacteria and or as a result of problems with seborrhoeic scalp condition. Dandruff is visible as large pieces of dead skin that we normally call "dandruff". A person suffering from dandruff for a long time is said to be have a dandruff ailment. This aliment along with itchiness can lead to eczema if not treated. One way of treating fatty dandruff is to prevent the growth of bacteria. Bacteria are the cause of this condition.

An effective way of dealing with dandruff is to use a medicated shampoo specifically designed to remove dandruff. Depending on the type of dandruff you have, you will have to decide your shampooing regime. People who suffer from dry scalp should not shampoo daily or it can lead to eczema. You can try a simple home remedy for dandruff. Massage some vinegar into your hair and scalp and let it dry for a few minutes and then wash your hair. Repeat this process is done daily till the problem disappears. If you have a persistent problem of dandruff it is best to consult a dermatologist or skin specialist.

Hair Secrets

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Here are some tips and secrets to be the perfect diva that you can try at home, without spending a fortune in the beauty parlors and wandering from beauty clinics and saloons. Remember, they are not to be passed on to your friends:

* The hot tip to make your hair smell aromatic is to prepare your own hair perfume at home. Mix 6 tablespoons of powdered charcoal, 5 tablespoons of powdered myrrh and 1 tablespoon of powdered benzoin together and sieve it thoroughly. Add 2-3 drops of bergamot oil and 2-3 drops of sandalwood oil, 1 tablespoon of potassium nitrate and mucilage of tragacanth to the mixture until it acquires the consistency of a stiff paste. Heat the mixture over a water bath. Shape it into little cones and dry them. Whenever you wash your hair, light one of the cones while your hair is still damp and let them soak the smell of the cone.
* A perfect way to get rid of dry, brittle, dull hair is to massage mayonnaise into your hair thoroughly, starting from the roots to the hair ends. Then pile your hair on top of your head and cover them fully with plastic food wrap. Wrap the pre-heated towel around it and keep it on for 10 minutes. This will help in deep-conditioning your hair. Now, replace the towel with another pre-heated towel and leave it on for 10 minutes too. Now remove all the wraps and shampoo your hair. This cholesterol treatment once a month for your hair is a boon that will keep it soft and shiny.
* If you don't have time to shampoo your oily hair daily, you can try this out. Pour some cornstarch into a dish and dip a clean, large blush brush into it. Brush your scalp and hair roots thoroughly with the cornstarch and leave it on for 10 minutes to soak off the oil. Then brush away the cornstarch flakes, ridding your hair with all that unwanted greasiness.
* Make a mixture by adding ¼ cup of apple cider vinegar with 1 gallon of distilled water and store it in the refrigerator. Once a fortnight, shampoo and rinse your hair thoroughly and then pour 2 cups of the mixture over the scalp and let it saturate the hair. Rinse your hair with cold water to get rid of all the drab of hair styling products.
* A possible cure for your impossible dandruff is vinegar. Massage it into your scalp and leave it to dry for a few minutes. Wash the hair thoroughly and repeat the process daily. Dandruff usually disappears within a few days.
* The ancient Mayan women used avocados to keep their skin and hair healthy. Here is their infallible hair mask that you can use too - Mix ½ ripe avocado, 1 tbsp. olive oil, ½ small banana and 1 egg yolk together and massage it into your hair. Cover it with a plastic wrap and leave it on for one hour. Rinse the mask with warm water and then shampoo your hair thoroughly.
* Say goodbye to your dandruff by dissolving 2 aspirins in your dandruff shampoo before washing your hair with it. Moisturize your hair with a good conditioner later.
* Powder your greasy hair by putting it a little at the root of your hair before straying. For very oily hair, powder your hair heavily and keep it on for 15 minutes. Then wash the hair completely and condition lightly before making the desired style.
* To bleach your hair naturally or just lighten their color, rub lemon juice on them and wander out for a walk in natural sunlight.

Bridal Beauty

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Every bride deserves to be the very special lady of the day and look her best. The hairdo, the makeup, the bridal trousseau and how the bride conducts herself is the focus of everybody's attention on this day and you will certainly feel much more comfortable, if you have already done the dress rehearsal first. Here are some useful tips for the bride:

* To cover the reddish skin, use sheer color corrector and apply tinted moisturizer of yellowish green or olive green shade to neutralize it.
* Pink color blush is not for the wedding day, generally speaking. Try bronzer under cheekbones instead.
* Bright lip colors may be warm such as orange-red, orange-gold, copper and warm beiges, creams and caramels or cool such as fuchsia, magenta, blue-reds, shades of lilac and pink and make lips look plusher and fuller.
* Deep warm lip colors such as yellowish and orangish browns; mahogany, deep warm reds and chocolate and deep cool shades such as cool brown, taupe, deep purple, plum and blue-toned burgundy underplay too much thickness of lips.
* The subtle look can be achieved by using the air-brush a lot and sticking to light shades such as cream, gold, lime green and brown for warm skin undertones and lilac, plums and soft pink for cool skin undertones.
* Neutrals are the safest choice to make you seem a bride endowed with natural beauty.
* Be sure to coordinate you overall look: all the colors should have either warm or cool tone while your hair, make-up, jewelry and gown should correspond to the carefully chosen theme.
* Hairstyle is usually chosen, after completing the makeup to suit the looks of the bride.
* If you are not used to wearing heavy makeup, keep your hands away from blue and green eye shadows.
* For olive and dusky skinned ladies, maroons and brown lip colors are the safest bet as well as the golden tones.
* Hairstyles are often adorned with pearls, rhinestones, flower buds, golden lace, satin ribbons, jeweled hair bands and tiaras among other hair ornaments and may range from the simplest French braid or bud to complex and elaborate hairdos.
* Bridal makeup includes all the attention to the minutest of details. Don't overlook them for the finished look.
* A timeless makeup look will keep your wedding snaps fresher forever, so try not to give in to the fads of the day.
* Cream foundation with a high pigment level is recommended.
* Don't forget to cover your neck, chest, area behind your ears with foundation and makeup too.
* Morning weddings need natural look makeup while evening weddings need more formally adorned brides with darker makeup shades.
* Lighting also determines your makeup. A well-lit area uses lighter colors while deeper tones are good for darker areas. Fluorescent lighting will add a greenish tinge to everything so avoid green shades.
* Try not to be too dramatic but there is a secret seldom revealed: red lipstick makes teeth appear whiter!

Bridal Makeup

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The day of the wedding is perhaps the most-awaited day in the life of any woman and to look like a fairy queen is the dream of most of the brides. The bridal makeup is not only about makeup for the occasion but also about pre-bridal skin and facial care and treatments. It must be photography friendly too and thus, professional help is often desired to assist brides to look their best on this very special day of their lives. Correct use of colors and expert highlighting and contouring leave you looking as stunning and dazzling, as you want. Choose cosmetics that are long lasting, can be easily blended and have high pigmentation level for your wedding day and you are free to use shimmer and gloss to make you shine. Cosmetic colors should compliment your wedding attire yet you must also keep in mind that there will be lots of flash photography and blue-toned colors will make you appear darker.

Naturally beautiful is the best look of all times and warm and neutral shades go a long way in helping you to achieve it. Fuschia and blue-red lipsticks may end up giving you a vampy look while frosted and highly reflective lipsticks are too old-fashioned these days. If you really want to shine and exude warmth, use sheer application of luminescent cosmetics instead. Remember, rightly applied concealers and foundations are your best friends on your bridal day. It is always a help to know your face well - your skin type, your facial features, undertone of your coloring and what you want to highlight and what you want to underplay. So determine these things, well before the wedding day. Rehearsals don't harm you anyway and are very useful in successfully achieving the desired look on the main day.

For weddings in summers, spray your face with sealer after doing makeup so that it lasts longer. For make your lip color last longer, define your lips using the lip liner and then apply the lip color. Tissue off the extra color and reapply it. Seal it too and then add the gloss or shimmer. Be sure to take good care of skin and cleanse, moisturize, tone and protect it months before wedding. Don't forget to use sunscreens and sun blocks with vitamins and nutrients good for skin too. Coordinate the color of your eyebrows with your hair and use a firm angled bristle brush to comb them properly. Gray ash blondes can use ash brown shade to cover their eyebrows while redheads can use reddish brown shades or orange or gold tones depending upon the undertone of your hair.

The beauty sleep before the wedding is absolutely essential so make sure that you are well rested and well fed on the day of your wedding despite all the excitement, fun and anxiety so that you do not look dull and sick at the time of the occasion. Keep one of your friends nearby with all the little things that you might need for that quick touchup such as powder, hair pins, safety pins, lip color and gloss, paper tissue, Qtips and even a mild pain killer, just in case. Keep a second pair of very comfortable shoes handy so you don't look as if you are going to try just because your feet are hurting so! It is always better to check what hairstyles suit you well before the wedding, so you don't mess up on the day of the occasion. Makeovers are thrilling but try them out much before the wedding so that you don't land up feeling strange and uncomfortable on the big day.

Makeup For Teenagers

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Mothers have been fretting over their teenaged girls ever-increasing cosmetic use and the threat to their skin. Now they should breathe easier for even teens can use cosmetics made especially for them. Teenagers should opt for more natural look and use light application of makeup only as their skin is still young and is naturally beautiful. Soft and subtle are the two keywords that teens should keep in mind while doing makeup. The colors that work best for them are the ones that are closest to their natural skin tone or add just a bit of color to their faces such as shades of pink, coral, neutral brown and gray. Here are a few steps that any teenage girl can use to transform into a blooming beauty in a jiffy:

* Use a concealer pencil that matches you skin tone to cover any skin imperfections, acnes, skin blemishes, scars or dark circles.
* Use a toothbrush to brush brows into place.
* Use a soft gray eye pencil to fill in any gaps in the eyebrows.
* Use soft gray eyeliner to line the lashes and blend it well to the outside edge.
* Apply one coat of brown mascara but if you have naturally black eyelashes, you may also use black mascara too.
* If you have a warm skin undertone, use sheer application of peach blush but if you have a cool skin undertone, use soft pink shade. Blend it well using cotton ball.
* Use natural shade of lip color or just sheer gloss for a soft nude look and you are ready for the party, girl.

Makeup in Five Minutes

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When you have only five minutes before rushing out of the house and you want to apply make up, here are the steps on how the apply make up in five minutes.

* Apply moisturizer.
* Apply foundation and blend it in with a foundation brush for even coverage.
* Apply blush and blend it in. Powder blushes are easiest to apply.
* Apply eye shadow of your choice lightly.
* Apply eyeliner according to eye shape, concentrate on the outer corners.
* Apply mascara to your lashes.
* Use a fat brown pencil and apply color to your brow bone and blend.
* Color your lips with the help of a lip brush. This is not time consuming.
* Powder your nose and t-zone with loose powder.
* Check your blush and add more if you need.

Party Make Up Tips

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We all wear makeup everyday, but when you are invited to a party the make up has to be special. Your make up should be such that it should make you stand out in the party. Here are a few tips on party make up that will make you the center of attraction in the party.

* Before the night of the party decide what you are going to wear and try it on. Do a dress rehearsal with the accessories that you are going to wear.
* Choose lipstick according to the color of your skin. Pick something that will suit you nicely.
* Highlight either your eyes or your lips. If you are wearing red lipstick then do not highlight your eyes.
* Choose a nice perfume and do not eat garlic, as it will affect the scent of your fragrance.
* Soak in the bath for a while and relax before you leave for the party. This will make you relaxed and you will have more fun at the party.
* Choose an elegant and easy hairstyle.
* If you are not comfortable in a dress you do not have to wear one, you can wear trousers and you can accessorize them for the occasion.
* Don't wear too many accessories. Less is better for a party.
* Apply fresh nail polish before the party to ensure that your nails are looking gorgeous.
* Last but not the least be on your best behavior at the party.

Make Up Tips

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Every girl or woman wants to look beautiful and to highlight their important features, especially on their face. Every girl sooner or later starts experimenting with make up. There is no doubt that make up, makes you look beautiful but only if it applied properly. Many women do not know how to apply make up properly. Here are a few make up tips that should help you.

* Use a gel blush or a cream blush instead of powder in a shade of pink and it will look more natural. Gels or creams are more transparent and blend smoothly. Rub them onto your cheekbones and blend upwards towards your eye for a glowing rosy complexion.
* To fix unpolished nails, fail nails into square shape, buff them to give some shine and then apply a clear coat of polish. Then rub a little cuticle oil around the edges of your nails and apply rich moisturizer on your hand. In about 15 minutes your hand will have a polished look.
* The trend now is to have natural looking eyebrows and not thin, arched brows. Use a tinted brow definer or eye shadow to fill your brows if they are scanty.
* Before you sharpen your eyeliner or lip liner keep it in the freezer for about 10 minutes. The pencil will harden a little and will not break when sharpened.
* Women whose eyes are deep-set should use liquid liner instead of pencil eyeliner. Liquid liner does not smudge easily and will not smudge in the crease of the lid in deep-set eyes.
* To prevent mascara flaking off and smudging on your face, apply a thin coat of mascara on your top lashes only. Then brush your lashes with an eyelash brush to prevent clumpy mascara build-up.
* Before curling your eyelashes, heat the eyelash curler with a hair dryer for a few seconds. Test to make sure that it is not very hot and then apply it on your eyelashes. The heat will ensure that the curl stays in place on extra long eyelashes.
* Before buying a concealer or foundation, test the color on the inside of your wrist. The skin here is unblemished and will give you an idea on how the color will look on your face.
* To extend the life of your foundation mix a drop of your moisturizer to create a glowing look for your skin.
* Apply foundation after you have done your eye make-up. This way you will be able to fix any mascara or eyeliner smudges.
* To prevent your lips from feeling dry when you apply matte lipstick, apply lip balm on your lips before start your make up. By the time you do your eyes and the rest of the face your lips would have absorbed the balm and will be ready for the matte lipstick.
* To make lipstick last for longer shade your lips with lip liner before you apply lipstick.
* If you have applied nail polish in a sloppy fashion, then just soak your nails once they are dry in warm water for a few minutes and them rub off the extra nail polish with a finger.
* Dark eye shadow can be used as eyeliner as well. Use a very flat brush, wet is and dip it in dark eye shadow. Wriggle the brush into your lash line paying special attention to the space between the lashes and then use the color just above your lash line.

Complete Makeup Process

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Makeup is an art and an artist must know what he/she wants in the end. You may choose for naturally beautiful look, bold and exotic nightclub look or a high-profile dinner party look, depending on the occasion and place, where you are heading. To look beautiful, you need to understand your face, your best facial features, which can be your eyes, lips, cheeks and/or eyebrows and what suits you the most. Coordinate your colors beforehand and remember, bolder colors are for exotic looks only and can play havoc on your face, if not used expertly. The basic list of products that any makeup-conscious lady needs, includes:

* Blusher,
* Eye Shadow,
* Eyebrow Color,
* Eyeliner,
* Face powder,
* Foundation,
* Lip brush,
* Lip liner,
* Lipstick,
* Mascara, and
* Moisturizer.

We will define the steps for daily or simple makeup here. For details, you can refer to our article for that particular product:

* Moisturize your face, especially people with dry skin.
* Apply foundation that matches your natural skin tone for a smooth skin effect.
* Apply powder for that flawless look to your face and matte down any shiny areas on your face. Gently tap the powder pad on the back of your hand before applying it on the face to shake off any excess powder.
* Blush adds color and freshens up your face instantly. See 'Applying Blush' for more details.
* Pluck your eyebrows, apply eye shadow, eyeliner and mascara and do eye makeup very very carefully. If you are not confident, leave this part out completely.
* Classic, tried and tested natural/neutral color combinations are best for eyes, unless you are quite an expert.
* Define the lips using the lip liner and fill up the lip color using the brush.
* You may use lip-gloss too for a sexier look.
* A tinge of shine powder can instantly transform you for that evening party.

It is always good to be aware of the latest trends and fashions in makeup and being innovative and creative to have a distinctive style of your own helps too.

Makeup For Older Women

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You may be above 40 but there is no reason, why you should look so. So here are some tips and tricks for mature women to conceal their age effectively and look young forever:

* Use a stiff bristled brush and blush to line the lips rather than a lip liner pencil that helps your lip color to stay put longer and prevent it from bleeding or feathering.
* Use loose translucent powder with a powder brush only once in the morning to set your makeup as reapplying it again and again can accentuates lines and wrinkles. Use a fluffy brush alone for the touch up.
* Use a highlighter to de-emphasize jowls (the lines from the edge of the nose to the corner of the mouth).
* Use a non-frosted powder under the chin to de-emphasize saggy neck. Choose a shade slightly darker than your natural skin tone.
* Frosted eye shadows can actually make you look younger but be sure that you are expert at handling them properly. Use the lightest shade under your brow, a darker one close to your lashes and the darkest on the crease and blend them properly.
* Be soft and subtle in the choice of makeup and colors for the youthful look or get professional help!
* A foundation with a lighter-textured base that matches your skin tone is a must.
* Use concealer generously to cover up any aging lines or blemishes.
* Use cream blushes in golden almond and copper tones and blend them gently from cheeks to temples in an arc for a soft transparent effect.
* Blends of pink and gray eye shadows soften graying hair.
* Use a soft eyebrow pencil that matches your hair color and never ever use black eyebrow pencil.
* Use soft matte lip colors in pink, berry, coral or peach shades to make your lips fuller.

Day and Evening Makeup

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You must have heard several times that the day makeup should be light and simple while you are free to use bolder colors for an evening party and use lots of sheer and gloss. This usually causes the myth that it is the colors that make all the difference in the day and evening makeup. Well, the truth is that it is the lighting that makes all the difference. Here we will discuss how different light sources can present us differently. Most of the big corporate offices have bright fluorescent lighting and people generally use incandescent lighting at home. Fluorescent light is a blue light that sharpens all colors while incandescent light is a yellow or red light than tends to soften all colors. So, we must do our makeup accordingly.

In fluorescent light, people with blue eyes will look more reddish while people with brown eyes will appear yellowish or greenish. Photographer uses soft and warm red-toned incandescent lights while doing portraits to hide imperfections and make you look flawless. Thus, for day makeup, when most of the people are at work with fluorescent lights or bright sunlight, which makes everything appear clearly, we must use more sheer, natural and neutral colors and their combinations so as not to appear dramatic or wearing a mask. While in the evening or in parties with incandescent lights, you can add more contrast to your face by using slightly brighter and bolder colors.

For under lit areas such as dancing clubs and nightclubs with little lighting, we use a lot of makeup, very bold colors and over dramatic styles so that it is easily available to others. Similarly, theatre artists and stage artists wear a lot of makeup so that it is visible when stage lights light up their faces. So, it is not the clock that changes the makeup style but the lighting. Of course, if we have to stay day and night, under same type of lighting, we won't need to adjust our makeup differently for day and evening but hen, the life will become so dull and boring!

Daily Makeup

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Applying cosmetics on a daily basis may make the women feel more confident but may not be a good idea for sensitive skin. Only quality products should be used for routine use and choosing cosmetics is an important step towards skin care and health. For daily purposes, powder cosmetics are preferable as they keep the shine under control and have lesser preservatives and skin irritants than liquid ones. If liquid foundation is an item you cannot possibly cross out, opt for one with a silicone base as it does not cause acne. The makeup remover to clean out waterproof cosmetics also wipes out the protective layer of sebum from the skin, so use waterproof cosmetics only occasionally.

Never use cosmetics that have crossed their expiry dates. Normally, life span of mascaras is about three to four months, foundations and lipsticks last for one year while powder and eye shadows last for about two years. It is also important to wash and clean brushes and sponges regularly. Black mascaras and eyeliners are dramatic and also the least allergenic of all colorants. Pencil eyeliner and eyebrow pencils that are wax based should work for daily use and they can be cleaned off using only water. Light earth tones not only give you a natural look but are less likely to cause skin irritation than the darker colors.

Use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor 15 or higher and ingredients such as zinc oxide or titanium dioxide to avoid harmful effects of UVA rays. Cosmetics with fewer ingredients are much safer, so for daily use, opt for cosmetics that have no more than 10 ingredients. Remember, nail polishes are not for daily use. For a quick pedicure, scrape the dead skin off the soles of your feet after shower using an emery board, rub them over with lotion or olive oil or petroleum jelly and push back the cuticles of your toenails. To maintain them, wear socks all the time. If socks make you feel hot, cut the toe section and ankle section of your socks. You can do a quick manicure in a similar fashion too and maintain them by wearing socks or gloves at night.

Winter Makeup

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Skin care routine and cosmetics for winters need to undergo a heavy makeover for the chilly cold season. You need to look more glamorous and more polished during the season. Matte understated shades such as coffee, chocolate and smoky shades for eyes and berry tones for lips and cheeks replace the fresh summer face. Gloss is in again and so are our beloved fruity and spicy tones of cosmetics. Velvety shades are the way to go for a winter woman. Here are some tips you can use this Christmas season:

* A bit of sheen on eyes can be used too for a change, if you are using nude shades; while on lips, it can help your lips to look more voluptuous.
* Either your moisturizer or your foundation should have broad-spectrum sun protection factor to block UV sunrays that do not leave our skin alone even for winters. Matt finish foundation is better for winders.
* For fragrance, stick to essence of essential oils, spices and other natural aromas.
* If you want to sport long eyelashes, you may try fake individual eyelashes that can be applied using tweezers.
* Sheer layer of creamy blushers can boost up your subtle makeup.
* Smokey eyes look best in winters and you can use eye shadows in cinnamon and coffee shades for sultry effect.
* Though, normally black mascaras make a comeback every winter season, this time it is the shades of Aubergine that are a great hit for the purple tint that matches your colored locks. A dark brown shade of waterproof mascara is a multipurpose product too.
* Tinted lip balms in honey, blackberry and red currant tones look great too in winters.
* Tinted powder with a slight shimmer is great for winters.
* Use ample amount of skin-priming moisturizers, especially meant for winters, on your face that may have properties to exfoliate gently and lower concentration of alpha hydroxy acids. Night cream should be heavy for winters.

Summer Makeup

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Summer is the time to give your body the healthy tan and protect it from the horrors of sunburn, baked and dry lips and even sun-scorched skin cancer! There are some makeup disasters that can happen in summer sun and a relaxing beach noon that we do not pay adequate attention too. Here we are going to discuss them along with some other tips to keep you pretty like sunshine:

* Avoid lip liner.
* Colors such as golden-green or mango green for eyes can be used along with black or brown mascara.
* Dewy face with the lightest veil of translucent powder is the right summer look.
* Dry hair frizz a lot as humidity increases and make curly hair unmanageable. Rich deep conditioning of your hair will help to tame your hair and don't forget to protect them from sun, sand and wind by wearing a trendy summer hat or a baseball cap. Wax and texturizers also help to tame frizzy hair.
* Gold shimmer under brows or across cheekbones can be a luxury you can use.
* In case, you haven't taken the precaution already and the damage is already done, use a foundation with the shade of your tanned skin to cover the area under your eyes and blend it well with the rest of the face. Then use nude or light brown eye shadow to give them a natural look.
* Light shade of bronzer on cheekbones and chin gives you a beautiful suntan.
* Sprinkle your feet with foot powder before wearing sandals to avoid any blisters. If you still feel shoe-on-skin rubbing, protect the sensitive area with a bandage before the blister forms. To get rid of the blister, take a clean needle and sanitize it with alcohol. Pop the blister and use cotton to clean any fluid that comes out of it. Apply an antibiotic ointment without trying to scrape off the skin and then cover the area with a bandage.
* Sunglasses protect your eyes but do not stop the sun from tanning the rest of your face, resulting in eyes with paler skin around it than the rest of the face. To avoid this, generously rub sunscreen with SPF 30 with a broad spectrum over your entire face and body every two hours.
* The only thing you can do to get rid of this yellowish tint is to scrape the surface of your nail with the help of the finest-grain side of the block file and use the clear UV-resistant topcoat for protection and shine.
* The sheer pastel, beige and pink nail polish acquires a yellowish tint after being exposed to sun for two days or more. To avoid this, use a clear nail gloss with inbuilt UV protection topcoat and do not forget to rub sunscreen on nails too after every two hours, just like the rest of your body.
* Use eyeliner pencil of slate gray, warm chocolate or navy shades with a light hand.
* Use gel on your hair and use only the fresh razor with triple blades to shave bikini line to avoid any unsightly rashes. You can use 1% hydrocortisone cream to any rash to cure it and hide any redness in the area by using tinted facial moisturizer.
* Warm blond and naturally medium brown hair with highlights may acquire coppery shades in sun due to oxidation. Thus, always wear a hat or scarf while venturing outdoors. Hair color gloss can help you to achieve the shine again.
* Warm, sunny, bright blush can be used.
* Wear only natural nude shades as lip colors while going out to the beach. If you cannot resist the temptation of using liquid lipstick while on the honeymoon in a tropical island, keep it inside the cooler for your soda or carry it in a pot or tube with a wand. If your bullet is going soft, try to cool it a little by placing it in a fridge or near an air conditioner.

Monsoon Makeup

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In monsoons, dense makeup has a risk of being smudged and washed out severely and so light and sheer makeup is more advisable. Use waterproof mascara, transfer-resistant lipsticks and waterproof liners and may even use waterproof foundation, if it is a must for you. Indian girls can put their 'kajal' (kohl) away until winters. Here are some tips to keep you pretty when it is raining cats and dogs:

* Wash and cleanse the face thoroughly and rub an ice cube on your face for 5 to 10 minutes to lower the sweating rate so that the makeup stays put for longer period of time.
* Women with oily skin can use astringent while women with dry to normal skin can use toner after the ice to cool and refresh the skin.
* Avoid foundation and prepare the base of your makeup using powder slightly.
* Sheer film of light brown, beige, pastel or pink cream eye shadow can be used along with a think line of eyeliner and use a coat or two of waterproof mascara.
* Soft matte lipsticks are preferable to most ladies during monsoons but you may use a soft brown or pink shade with sheer gloss.
* Do not neglect to use water-based moisturizers during rainy season to keep away the oily skin, acne and water loss due to perspiration and sweating.
* Keep your hairstyles simple and easy. Elaborate hairstyles are more difficult to manage and redo and limp damp hair do not look good with them. You may use bangs and layered hairstyles instead.
* Bright jewelry is in vogue during monsoons but this is the minimalist year, so you may opt for stone studded light jewelry.
* If you must you blush, keep it light and blend it well. Cream blush in shades of pink, peach and brown can be used.
* During this time, keep your eyebrows in shape with threading and hair gel for you cannot use eyebrow pencil during a downpour.
* Wash you hair regularly and massage your scalp regularly to keep dandruff and other hair problems out of your way.
* Denims are not for monsoons; wear light cotton fabrics, capri pants and three fourths.
* Umbrellas and raincoats are also in fashion. Buy some in cheerful happy colors.
* White and light colors can easily get muddy, so avoid them.
* Throw your leather booths and high heels at the back and wear sneakers and sandals.

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

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Born: October 19, 1910
Died: August 21, 1995
Achievements: Discovery of Chandrasekhar Limit; awarded Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983.

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was one of the greatest scientists of the 20th century. He did commendable work in astrophysics, physics and applied mathematics. Chandrasekhar was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983.

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was born on October 19, 1910 in Lahore. His father, Chandrasekhara Subrahmanya Ayyar was an officer in Government Service in the Indian Audits and Accounts Department. His mother Sita was a woman of high intellectual attainments. C.V. Raman, the first Indian to get Nobel Prize in science was the younger brother of Chandrasekhar's father. Till the age of 12, Subramanyan Chandrasekhar had his education at home under his parents and private tutors. In 1922, at the age of 12, he attended the Hindu High School. He joined the Madras Presidency College in 1925. Subrahmanyan Chandrashekhar passed his Bachelor's degree, B.Sc. (Hon.), in physics in June 1930. In July 1930, he was awarded a Government of India scholarship for graduate studies in Cambridge, England.

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar completed his Ph.D. degree at Cambridge in the summer of 1933. In October 1933, Chandrasekhar was elected to a Prize Fellowship at Trinity College for the period 1933-37. In 1936, while on a short visit to Harvard University, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, was offered a position as a Research Associate at the University of Chicago and remained there ever since. In September 1936, Subrahmanyan Chandra Shekhar married Lomita Doraiswamy. She was her junior at the Presidency College in Madras.

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar is best known for his discovery of Chandrasekhar Limit. He showed that there is a maximum mass which can be supported against gravity by pressure made up of electrons and atomic nuclei. The value of this limit is about 1.44 times a solar mass. The Chandrasekhar Limit plays a crucial role in understanding the stellar evolution. If the mass of a star exceeded this limit, the star would not become a white dwarf. It would continue to collapse under the extreme pressure of gravitational forces. The formulation of the Chandrasekhar Limit led to the discovery of neutron stars and black holes. Depending on the mass there are three possible final stages of a star - white dwarf, neutron star and black hole.

Apart from discovery of Chandrasekhar Limit, major work done by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar includes: theory of Brownian motion (1938-1943); theory of the illumination and the polarization of the sunlit sky (1943-1950); theory of the illumination and the polarization of the sunlit sky (1943-1950); the equilibrium and the stability of ellipsoidal figures of equilibrium, partly in collaboration with Norman R. Lebovitz (1961-1968); the general theory of relativity and relativistic astrophysics (1962-1971); and the mathematical theory of black holes (1974- 1983).

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was awarded (jointly with the nuclear astrophysicist W.A. Fowler) the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983. He died on August 21, 1995.

Satyendra Nath Bose

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Born: January 1, 1894
Died: February 4, 1974
Achievements: Famous for "Bose-Einstein Theory". A subatomic particle Boson has been named after him. Honored with "Padma Bhushan".

Satyendra Nath Bose was an outstanding Indian physicist. He is known for his work in Quantum Physics. He is famous for "Bose-Einstein Theory" and a kind of particle in atom has been named after his name as Boson.

Satyendranath Bose was born on January 1, 1894 in Calcutta. His father Surendranath Bose was employed in the Engineering Department of the East India Railway. Satyendranath was the eldest of his seven children.

Satyendra Nath Bose had his schooling from Hindu High School in Calcutta. He was a brilliant student. He passed the ISc in 1911 from the Presidency College, Calcutta securing the first position. Satyendra Nath Bose did his BSc in Mathematics from the Presidency College in 1913 and MSc in Mixed Mathematics in 1915 from the same college. He topped the university in BSc. and MSc. Exams.

In 1916, the Calcutta University started M.Sc. classes in Modern Mathematics and Modern Physics. S.N. Bose started his career in 1916 as a Lecturer in Physics in Calcutta University. He served here from 1916 to 1921. He joined the newly established Dhaka University in 1921 as a Reader in the Department of Physics. In 1924, Satyendra Nath Bose published an article titled Max Planck's Law and Light Quantum Hypothesis. This article was sent to Albert Einstein. Einstein appreciated it so much that he himself translated it into German and sent it for publication to a famous periodical in Germany - 'Zeitschrift fur Physik'. The hypothesis received a great attention and was highly appreciated by the scientists. It became famous to the scientists as 'Bose-Einstein Theory'.

In 1926, Satyendra Nath Bose became a Professor of Physics in Dhaka University. Though he had not completed his doctorate till then, he was appointed as professor on Einstein's recommendation. In 1929 Satyendranath Bose was elected chairman of the Physics of the Indian Science Congress and in 1944 elected full chairman of the Congress. In 1945, he was appointed as Khaira Professor of Physics in Calcutta University. He retired from Calcutta University in 1956. The University honored him on his retirement by appointing him as Emeritus Professor. Later he became the Vice Chancellor of the Viswabharati University. In 1958, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society, London.

Satyendra Nath Bose was honored with 'Padmabhusan' by the Indian Government in recognition of his outstanding achievement. He died in Kolkata on February 4, 1974.

M. Visvesvaraya

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Born: September 15, 1860
Died: April 14, 1962
Achievements: Architect of Krishnarajasagar Dam; devised steel doors to stop the wasteful flow of water in dams; honored with Bharat Ratna.

Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya was an eminent engineer and statesman and played a key role in building of modern India.

Sir M. Visvesvaraya was born on September 15, 1860 in Muddenahalli village in the Kolar district of the erstwhile princely state of Mysore (present day Karnataka). His father Srinivasa Sastry was a Sanskrit scholar and Ayurvedic practitioner. His mother Venkachamma was a religious lady. He lost his father when he was only 15 years old.

Visvesvaraya completed his early education in Chikkaballapur and then went to Bangalore for higher education. He cleared his B.A. Examination in 1881. He got some assistance from the Government of Mysore and joined the Science College in Poona to study Engineering. In 1883 he ranked first in the L.C.E. and the F.C.E. Examinations (equivalent to B.E. Examination of today).

When Sir M. Visvesvaraya cleared his engineering, Government of Bombay offered him a job and appointed him Assistant Engineer at Nasik. As an engineer, he achieved some marvelous feats. He planned a way of supplying water from the river Sindhu to a town called Sukkur. He devised a new irrigation system called the Block System. He devised steel doors to stop the wasteful flow of water in dams. He was the architect of the Krishnaraja Sagara dam in Mysore. The list is endless.

Sir M. Visvesvaraya lead a very simple life. He was a strict vegetarian and a teetotaler. He was known for his honesty and integrity. In 1912, Maharaja of Mysore appointed Visvesvaraya as his Dewan. Before accepting the position of Dewan of Mysore, he invited all his relatives for dinner. He told them very clearly that he would accept the prestigious office on the condition that none of them would approach him for favours. As Dewan of Mysore, he worked tirelessly for educational and industrial development of the state. When he was the Dewan many new industries came up. The Sandal Oil Factory, the Soap Factory, the Metals Factory, the Chrome Tanning Factory , were some of them. Of the many factories he started the most important is the Bhadravati Iron and Steel Works.

Sir M. Visvesvaraya voluntarily retired as Dewan of Mysore in 1918. He worked actively even after his retirement. Sir M. Visvesvaraya was honored with Bharat Ratna in 1955 for his invaluable contribution to the nation. When he reached the age of 100, the Government of India brought out a stamp in his honor. Sir Visvesvaraya passed away on April 14, 1962 at the age of 101.

Some of the honours and laurels conferred on Sir M. Visvesvaraya

* 1904: Honorary Membership of London Institution of Civil Engineers for an unbroken period of 50 years
* 1906: "Kaisar-i-Hind" in recognition of his services
* 1911: C.I.E. (Companion of the Indian Empire) at the Delhi Darbar
* 1915: K.C.I.E. (Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire)
* 1921: D.Sc. - Calcutta University
* 1931: LLD - Bombay University
* 1937: D.Litt - Benaras Hindu University
* 1943: Elected as an Honorary Life Member of the Institution of Engineers (India)
* 1944: D.Sc. - Allahabad University
* 1948: Doctorate - LLD., Mysore University
* 1953: D.Litt - Andhra University
* 1953: Awarded the Honorary Fellowship of the Institute of Town Planners, India
* 1955: Conferred ' BHARATHA RATNA'
* 1958: 'Durga Prasad Khaitan Memorial Gold Medal' by the Royal Asiatic Society Council of Bengal
* 1959: Fellowship of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

Meghnad Saha

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Born: October 6, 1893
Died: February 16, 1956
Achievements: Made outstanding contribution to the field of Astrophysics. He put forward an "ionization formula" which explained the presence of the spectral lines.

Meghnad Saha was an outstanding Indian scientist. He made remarkable contribution to the field of Astrophysics.

Meghnad Saha was born on October 6, 1893 in Sheoratali, a village in the District of Dacca, now in Bangladesh. He was the fifth child of his parents, Sri Jagannath Saha and Smt. Bhubaneshwari Devi. His father was a grocer in the village. Meghnad Saha had his early schooling in the primary school of the village. As his family could hardly able to make both ends meet, Meghnad Saha managed to pursue his schooling only due to the generosity of a local medical practitioner, Ananta Kumar Das, who provided him with boarding and lodging in his house.

In 1905, British Government took the decision of partition of Bengal. There was great political unrest in Bengal as popular opinion was against the partition. Sir Bampfylde Fuller was governor of East Bengal at that time. One day he came to visit the Collegiate school. Meghnad Saha along with other students boycotted his visit. As a result he was suspended from the school and his scholarship was terminated. He took admission in the Kishorilal Jubili School and passed the Entrance Examination of the Calcutta University in 1909, standing first among the student from East Bengal obtaining the highest marks in languages (English, Bengali and Sanskrit combined) and in Mathematics. In 1911, he ranked third in the ISc exam while the first position went to another great scientist Satyendranath Bose.

Meghnad Saha took admission in Presidency College Calcutta. In 1913 he graduated from Presidency College with Mathematics major and got the second rank in the University of Calcutta while the first one was taken by S.N. Bose. In 1915, both S.N.Bose and Meghnad Saha ranked first in M.Sc. exam, Meghnad Saha in Applied Mathematics and S.N. Bose in Pure Mathematics.

While studying in Presidency College, Meghnad got involved with Anushilan Samiti to take part in freedom fighting movement. He also came in contact with nationalists like Subhash Chandra Bose and Rajendra Prasad.

In 1917, Meghnad Saha joined as lecturer at the newly opened University College of Science in Calcutta. He taught Quantum Physics. Along with S.N. Bose, he translated the papers published in German by Einstein and Minkowski on relativity into English versions. In 1919, American Astrophysical Journal published - "On Selective Radiation Pressure and it's application" - a research paper by Meghnad Saha. He put forward an "ionization formula" which explained the presence of the spectral lines. The formula proved to be a breakthrough in astrophysics. He went abroad and stayed for two years. He spent time in research at Imperial College, London and at a research laboratory in Germany. In 1927, Meghnad Saha was elected as a fellow of London's Royal Society.

Meghnad Saha moved to Allahabad and in 1932 Uttar Pradesh Academy of Science was established. He returned to Science College, Calcutta in 1938. During this time Saha got interested in Nuclear Physics. In 1947, he established Institute of Nuclear Physics which later was named after him as Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics. He took the first effort to include Nuclear Physics in the curriculum of higher studies of science. Having seen cyclotrons used for research in nuclear physics abroad, he ordered one to be installed in the institute. In 1950, India had its first cyclotron in operation.

In 1952 he stood as an independent candidate for Parliament and was elected by a wide margin. He died on February 16, 1956 due to a heart attack.

Jagdish Chandra Bose

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Born: November 30, 1858
Died: November 23, 1937
Achievements: He was the first to prove that plants and metals too have feelings. He invented wireless telegraphy a year before Marconi patented his invention.

Jagdish Chandra Bose was an eminent Indian scientist. He was the first to prove that plants and metals too have feelings.

Jagdish Chandra Bose was born on November 30, 1858 in Mymensingh (now in Bangladesh). His father Bhagabanchandra Bose was a Deputy Magistrate. Jagadish Chandra Bose had his early education in village school in Bengal medium. In 1869, Jagadish Chandra Bose was sent to Calcutta to learn English and was educated at St.Xavier's School and College. He was a brilliant student. He passed the B.A. in physical sciences in 1879.

In 1880, Jagdishchandra Bose went to England. He studied medicine at London University, England, for a year but gave it up because of his own ill health. Within a year he moved to Cambridge to take up a scholarship to study Natural Science at Christ's College Cambridge. In 1885, he returned from abroad with a B.Sc. degree and Natural Science Tripos (a special course of study at Cambridge).

After his return Jagadish Chandra Bose, was offered lectureship at Presidency College, Calcutta on a salary half that of his English colleagues. He accepted the job but refused to draw his salary in protest. After three years the college ultimately conceded his demand and Jagdish Chandra Bose was paid full salary from the date he joined the college. As a teacher Jagdish Chandra Bose was very popular and engaged the interest of his students by making extensive use of scientific demonstrations. Many of his students at the Presidency College were destined to become famous in their own right. These included Satyendra Nath Bose and Meghnad Saha.

In 1894, Jagadish Chandra Bose decided to devote himself to pure research. He converted a small enclosure adjoining a bathroom in the Presidency College into a laboratory. He carried out experiments involving refraction, diffraction and polarization. It would not be wrong to call him as the inventor of wireless telegraphy. In 1895, a year before Guglielmo Marconi patented this invention, he had demonstrated its functioning in public.

Jagdish Chandra Bose later switched from physics to the study of metals and then plants. He fabricated a highly sensitive "coherer", the device that detects radio waves. He found that the sensitivity of the coherer decreased when it was used continuously for a long period and it regained its sensitivity when he gave the device some rest. He thus concluded that metals have feelings and memory.

Jagdish Chandra Bose showed experimentally plants too have life. He invented an instrument to record the pulse of plants and connected it to a plant. The plant, with its roots, was carefully picked up and dipped up to its stem in a vessel containing bromide, a poison. The plant's pulse beat, which the instrument recorded as a steady to-and-fro movement like the pendulum of a clock, began to grow unsteady. Soon, the spot vibrated violently and then came to a sudden stop. The plant had died because of poison.

Although Jagdish Chandra Bose did invaluable work in Science, his work was recognized in the country only when the Western world recognized its importance. He founded the Bose Institute at Calcutta, devoted mainly to the study of plants. Today, the Institute carries research on other fields too.

Jagdish Chandra Bose died on November 23, 1937.